What is Colostomy?
A colostomy is a common category of ostomy surgery. It is the surgical treatment of the colon (a part of the large intestine). The operation creates an artificial opening in the abdomen of the patient to collect the waste. The opening or hole in the belly is called a stoma. Usually, it is red and round. But, it changes its shape with the time and change in the body of the ostomate. The colostomy surgery provides a new path for the excretion of solid waste or feces. When a patient cannot discharge the stool from the natural track or colon cannot pass the feces, then there is a need for colostomy surgery.
A colostomy will be necessary if a person’s anus will be unable to perform its job or be removed by the doctors. Usually, after a severe disease like colorectal cancer or ulcerative colitis. Sometimes, it is permanent and sometimes temporary. Well, in case of permanent it is irreversible while it is reversible for temporary ostomates. It all depends on the disease and infection. In the colostomy, a part of the colon was removed and the remaining attached to the stoma (artificial opening). It happened due to the following reasons:
- Colon cancer.
- Infection in the colon.
- Blockage in the colon.
- Injury in the large intestine.
- Tumor in the large intestine.
- Blockage in the anus.
- Pelvic tumor.
- Rectal cancer.
The above-mentioned could be the reason for colostomy surgery. However, whether it is reversible or not, it depends on the condition of the disease and patient. After the colostomy surgery, an ostomate will discharge the feces through an unnatural pathway (stoma an opening in the abdomen).
Types of Colostomy
The following are the types of colostomy surgery:
- Loop colostomy.
- End colostomy.
- Double-Barrel colostomy.
The loop colostomy is usually a temporary and reversible procedure. It creates a large size stoma in the abdomen of the patient. It happens in emergencies like an injury in the large intestine during an accident. During this operation, doctors pull out a loop of the bowel. The one end brings to the abdomen and the other is held with an artificial tool. Finally, the surgeon sutures the bowel. They create two mouths or stomas: one for feces discharge and second for the mucus.
In the end colostomy, doctors create only one stoma. They keep open one hole for the collection of stool and stitch the other end. It has created on the one end of the bowel of the patient.
In the double-barrel colostomy, doctors bring both ends of the bowel to the outside of the belly wall. Usually, it is temporary and reversible processes. The two stomas are called a distal stoma and proximal stoma. The proximal stoma discharges the stool.
Every ostomate has a different healing process and time. Therefore, there is no fixed period for recovery. Well, it also depends on temporary and permanent ostomies. Moreover, a patient’s age and disease matter a lot. When the stoma and large intestine (bowel and colon) heals, a person can live a normal life. Moreover, the methods of treatment have changed now. Now, surgeons perform this operation by primary resection and placing an internal ileoanal pouch. They use a small portion of the small intestine for the placement of the ileoanal pouch. Thus, patients take five to eight weeks for a full recovery. But, this is not an indelible mark. You may take a longer or shorter time.
Care for Colostomy Patients
Well, colostomy patients should take care of their diet plan. You cannot afford constipation or loose motion. Therefore, eat small meals and easy to digest soft foods. Moreover, you should use a good quality adhesive to avoid leakage. You should change your ostomy pouch three to four times a day.